Do you want to know the difference between DNA and RNA? In this post, we will explain the difference between the two in detail so you can understand.
The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are fundamental to all forms of life on the planet. They’re two distinct molecules because they originally don’t play the same role in the body.
The main difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA is what makes up most of the genetic information in all living organisms.
On the other hand, RNA can act as a messenger between the nucleus and the outside world. It’s a chemical compound that is capable of self-replication and can also act as a catalyst.
Table of Contents
Difference between DNA and RNA
|Meaning||It is a polymer with a long chain. DNA is made up of four different bases: thymine, adenine, cytosine, and guanine. It has a deoxyribose and phosphate backbone.||Is a polymer made up of four different bases: uracil, cytosine, adenine, and guanine. It has a ribose and phosphate backbone.|
|Location||DNA is found in the nucleus and mitochondria of a cell.||It is distributed throughout the cytoplasm, nucleus, and ribosome.|
|Sugar portion||It is composed of 2-deoxyribose.||RNA contains Ribose.|
|Function||DNA is functional in that it is responsible for the transmission of genetic information. It forms as a long-term storage medium.||The function of RNA is to transmit the genetic code required for protein synthesis from the nucleus to the ribosome.|
|Prevalent Structure||It is a double-stranded molecule with a lengthy nucleotide chain.||RNA is a single-stranded molecule with a shorter nucleotide chain.|
|Propagation||DNA is self-replicating.||RNA is not self-replicating. When required, it is produced from DNA.|
|Nitrogenous Bases and Their Combinations||The base pairing is as follows: A-T (Guanine couples with Cytosine) GC (Guanine couples with Cytosine) (Adenine pairs with Thymine).||The base pairing is as follows: A-U (Guanine pairs with Cytosine) GC (Guanine couples with Cytosine) (Adenine pairs with Uracil).|
What is DNA?
DNA is a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes.
And also, it is a carrier of genetic information. Furthermore, scholars regard it as the fundamental and distinctive characteristics or qualities of someone or something, especially when considered unchangeable.
Johann Friedrich Miescher first discovered the chemical DNA in 1869, but no one established or recognized its part in genetic inheritance until 1943.
In 1953, James Watson and Francis crick, assisted by the work of biophysicists Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, determined the structure of DNA is a double-helix polymer, a spiral consisting of DNA strands wound around each other.
The breakthrough led to several significant advances in scientists’ understanding of DNA replication and hereditary control of cellular activities.
What is RNA?
RNA ribonucleic acid is a nucleic present in all living cells.
The principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins. However, in some viruses, RNA rather than DNA has generic information.
RNA and molecules can also form complexes known as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Research shows that The RNA portion of the least one cellular RNP can act as a biological catalyst, a function previously ascribed only to proteins.
RNA serves as the blueprint for protein, which is a chemical group composed of chains of amino acids.
A single strand of RNA is known as a ribo-tetral RNA structure, consisting of four nucleotides:
To make a protein, RNA polymerase transcribes RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA).
This complex enzyme has two subunits, a large protein called transcription factor and a DNA-specific RNA polymerase.
Frequently Asked Questions
Even though they are almost identical polymers of nucleotide, DNA and RNA are not identical; instead, they have slightly different base pairs. You can find thymine in DNA, but in RNA, uracil replaces it.
You can find DNA in the nucleus of a cell as well as the mitochondria. Meanwhile, you can find RNA in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and ribosomes.
While DNA can self-replicate, RNA cannot and must instead generate from DNA (DNA transcription) as needed.
Three of the four nitrogenous nucleotides in DNA and RNA are the same (cytosine, adenine, guanine). Phosphate is used in both, and the bases attach to phosphate.
There is one less hydroxyl group in the deoxyribose sugar in DNA than there should be. DNA is more stable than other nucleic acids. RNA, on the other hand, is more reactive than DNA because it contains ribose sugar. As a result, DNA is a superior genetic material to RNA.